So, "a person or animal with very pale skin, white hair or fur, and pink eyes caused by a medical condition that they were born with"  and "a person or animal with white skin and hair and pink eyes"  do not include feathers, scales or cuticles of birds, fish and invertebrates. Mature chromatophores are grouped into subclasses based on their colour under white light: Some definitions are too broad to be of much use, e.
It is often difficult to explain occasional occurrences, especially when only one documented incidence has occurred, such as only one albino gorilla and one albino koala. In mice, a total of genes are known to affect albinism. Nor do they include plants. For example, the albino gaur has this name because it is ash-grey whereas other gaur are almost black, and the American albino horse is a chestnut with a dilution gene. Albino vertebrates exposed to intense light typically lose photoreceptors due to apoptosis. Mammals have a gene that codes for the presence of tyrosinase in cells — called the TYR gene. In nearly all mammals, the overwhelming majority of photoreceptors are rods rather than cones. Besides the TYR gene, several other genes can cause albinism. They have also been protected in studies on their ecology and behaviour. So, "a person or animal with very pale skin, white hair or fur, and pink eyes caused by a medical condition that they were born with"  and "a person or animal with white skin and hair and pink eyes"  do not include feathers, scales or cuticles of birds, fish and invertebrates. What we perceive as "colour" are the wavelengths of light that are not absorbed by the pigment, but instead are reflected. The multiple reflections compound one another and intensify the colours. Whilst they are clear and precise for humans and other mammals, this is because the majority of mammals have only one pigment, melanin. If this gene is altered or damaged, melanin cannot be reliably produced and the mammal becomes an albino. Some definitions are too broad to be of much use, e. Furthermore, it could be interpreted that " Definition[ edit ] Albino wallaby with her offspring Definitions of albinism vary and are inconsistent. A clear definition appears to be — "Congenital absence of any pigmentation or coloration in a person, animal, or plant, resulting in white hair and pink eyes in mammals. Animals that show iridescence include mother of pearl seashells, fish, and peacocks. This means that their influence is hidden when paired with stronger traits. Some albino animals may have pale-blue eyes due to other colour generating processes. Because of the various uses of different terms applied to colouration, some authors have indicated that the colour of the eyes is the defining characteristic of albinism, e. Mammals and birds , in contrast, have a class of cells called melanocytes for colouration. The lack of clarity about the term is furthered when the name of an animal includes the term "albino" although the animals clearly do not have the condition. The absence of melanin results in abnormal development of eyes and leads to problems with focusing, and depth perception. Albinism specifically affects the rod cells, but the number and distribution of the cones is unaffected.
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